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Some might consider these findings worrying, particular as the problem may be systemic throughout the medical scientific literature. Current UK recommendations for physical activity are underpinned by data from observational studies and therefore could be confounded in their estimated effects.

Believing is seeing and seeing is believing – Hacker Noon

However such findings might not be replicated in clinical trials. There have been hundreds of randomised trials of physical activity in numerous disease conditions. However, these data have not been systematically scrutinised in the same way as the observational data. I believe such scrutiny will provide a more definitive answer as to the preventative and treatment effect of physical activity in chronic disease.

It may also provide information on the dosage that elicits the best and worst outcomes. Will there be sufficient evidence to assess if claims from observational studies hold true? We will have to wait and s…. Your email address will not be published. December 17, We are all scientists. Related Posts Operations team blog.

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Those that can…teach EBP. View more posts by David Nunan. The model illustrates how our assumptions shape the way we see the world and how we form conclusions about a certain situation based on our assumptions.

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Figure 5 illustrates how beliefs and assumptions have a critical effect on what we choose to pay attention to. It offers a series of questions we can ask ourselves to become more conscious of this process.


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The ladder of inference explains in a simplified way that we select certain data out of the observable facts in front of us. We then add meaning to these experiences, which in turn influences the assumptions we make, and how we draw certain conclusions that shape our beliefs about the world. These beliefs guide how we respond to situations and act in the world. By becoming more aware of the different steps we are taking on the ladder, we can question our own assumptions, conclusions and beliefs and those of others.

Here is a list of questions that can be used in taking individuals or groups through their own process of reasoning and reaching proposals for action. Which observable facts and experiences am I basing my reasoning on, and are there other facts to consider?


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How and why did I choose certain data and regard other data as less relevant? What are the underlying assumptions I am employing and are they valid?

seeing is believing

Based on what underlying assumptions am I judging their validity? What beliefs underlie my perspective and how have these beliefs influenced what I observed and which data I chose? Going through such a process of conscious questioning of different perspectives in a group that faces disagreement might not fully resolve the conflict, but it will certainly help to better understand the different perspectives. This increased understanding of multiple perspectives can help us to form a more systemic understanding of the issue, which in turn might offer an opportunity to discover common ground shared needs, values and beliefs which can help us to move forward on the issues in a more inclusive and participatory way.

It may help us to act more wisely in the face of not knowing and uncertainty. This is an important step in moving towards a regenerative culture. Sign in Get started.

The Polar Express: 7. Seeing is Believing

Believing is seeing and seeing is believing One of the crucial first steps in any process that lets us learn how to think differently is to begin with questioning our own assumptions and the mental models we employ. Hacker Noon is how hackers start their afternoons. If you enjoyed this story, we recommend reading our latest tech stories and trending tech stories.

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