This process culminates when the fruit sets to form the drupe, i. Olive trees grow well in Mediterranean soils with little rainfall. However, they do need light and air currents. This hardy tree has been known to live for over a thousand years. More than varieties of olive trees have been counted in Spain alone.
Each one has adapted to a certain climate and terrain, although they are not all of the same quality. This leads to a wide range of different olives, each with their own size, colour and nuances of aroma and flavour. The gordal olive, from Seville, for example, is the biggest, while the arbequina is the smallest. Your email address will not be published. With this tool you can prevent the insertion of these cookies.
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Peach trees are portrayed in the wall paintings of the towns destroyed by the Vesuvius eruption of 79 AD, while the oldest known artistic representations of the fruit are in two fragments of wall paintings, dated to the 1st century AD, in Herculaneum , now preserved in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples. The peach was brought to the Americas by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, and eventually made it to England and France in the 17th century, where it was a prized and expensive treat.
The horticulturist George Minifie supposedly brought the first peaches from England to its North American colonies in the early 17th century, planting them at his Estate of Buckland in Virginia. Recently, IPGI published the peach genome sequence and related analyses. In addition, a total of 27, protein-coding genes and 28, protein-coding transcripts were predicted.
Particular emphasis in this study is reserved for the analysis of the genetic diversity in peach germplasm and how it was shaped by human activities such as domestication and breeding. Major historical bottlenecks were individuated, one related to the putative original domestication that is supposed to have taken place in China about 4,—5, years ago, the second is related to the western germplasm and is due to the early dissemination of the peach in Europe from China and the more recent breeding activities in the United States and Europe.
These bottlenecks highlighted the substantial reduction of genetic diversity associated with domestication and breeding activities.
Peaches grow in a fairly limited range in dry, continental or temperate climates, since the trees have a chilling requirement that tropical or subtropical areas generally do not satisfy except at high altitudes for example in certain areas of Ecuador , Colombia , Ethiopia , India , and Nepal. During the chilling period, key chemical reactions occur, but the plant appears dormant.
Once the chilling period is fulfilled, the plant enters a second type of dormancy, the quiescence period. During quiescence, buds break and grow when sufficient warm weather favorable to growth is accumulated. Another climate constraint is spring frost. However, if the flowers are not fully open, they can tolerate a few degrees colder.
Typical peach cultivars begin bearing fruit in their third year. Their lifespan in the U. Hundreds of peach and nectarine cultivars are known. These are classified into two categories—freestones and clingstones.
Freestones are those whose flesh separates readily from the pit. Clingstones are those whose flesh clings tightly to the pit. Some cultivars are partially freestone and clingstone, so are called semifree. Freestone types are preferred for eating fresh, while clingstone types are for canning. The fruit flesh may be creamy white to deep yellow; the hue and shade of the color depend on the cultivar. Peach breeding has favored cultivars with more firmness, more red color, and shorter fuzz on the fruit surface.
These characteristics ease shipping and supermarket sales by improving eye appeal. However, this selection process has not necessarily led to increased flavor. Peaches have a short shelf life, so commercial growers typically plant a mix of different cultivars to have fruit to ship all season long.
Different countries have different cultivars. It is on occasion referred to as a "shaved peach" or "fuzzless peach", due to its lack of fuzz or short hairs. Peacherine is claimed to be a cross between a peach and a nectarine, and are marketed in Australia and New Zealand. The fruit is intermediate in appearance between a peach and a nectarine, large and brightly colored like a red peach.
The flesh of the fruit is usually yellow, but white varieties also exist. Flat peaches or pan-tao have a flattened shape in contrast to ordinary rounded peaches. Most peach trees sold by nurseries are cultivars budded or grafted onto a suitable rootstock. Peach trees need full sun, and a layout that allows good natural air flow to assist the thermal environment for the tree.
Peaches are planted in early winter. During the growth season, peach trees need a regular and reliable supply of water, with higher amounts just before harvest. Peaches need nitrogen -rich fertilizers more than other fruit trees. Without regular fertilizer supply, peach tree leaves start turning yellow or exhibit stunted growth. Blood meal , bone meal , and calcium ammonium nitrate are suitable fertilizers. The number of flowers on a peach tree is typically thinned out because if the full amount of peaches mature on a branch, they are undersized and lacking in flavor.
Fruits are thinned midway in the season by commercial growers. Fresh peaches are easily bruised and do not store well. They are most flavorful when they ripen on the tree and are eaten the day of harvest. The peach tree can be grown in an espalier shape. The Baldassari palmette is a palmette design created around used primarily for training peaches.
In walled gardens constructed from stone or brick, which absorb and retain solar heat and then slowly release it, raising the temperature against the wall, peaches can be grown as espaliers against south-facing walls as far north as southeast Great Britain and southern Ireland. The first pest to attack the tree early in the year when other food is scarce is the earwig Forficula auricularia which feeds on blossoms and young leaves at night, preventing fruiting and weakening newly planted trees.
Fruit set, drupes and other basic notions concerning the olive tree
The pattern of damage is distinct from that of caterpillars later in the year, as earwigs characteristically remove semicircles of petal and leaf tissue from the tips, rather than internally. Greasebands applied just before blossom are effective. The larvae of such moth species as the peachtree borer Synanthedon exitiosa , the yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis , the well-marked cutworm Abagrotis orbis , Lyonetia prunifoliella , Phyllonorycter hostis , the fruit tree borer Maroga melanostigma , Parornix anguliferella , Parornix finitimella , Caloptilia zachrysa , Phyllonorycter crataegella , Trifurcula sinica , Suzuki's promolactis moth Promalactis suzukiella , the white-spotted tussock moth Orgyia thyellina , the apple leafroller Archips termias , the catapult moth Serrodes partita , the wood groundling Parachronistis albiceps or the omnivorous leafroller Platynota stultana are reported to feed on P.
The flatid planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa causes damage to fruit trees. The tree is also a host plant for such species as the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica , the unmonsuzume Callambulyx tatarinovii , the promethea silkmoth Callosamia promethea , the orange oakleaf Kallima inachus , Langia zenzeroides , the speckled emperor Gynanisa maja or the brown playboy Deudorix antalus. The European red mite Panonychus ulmi or the yellow mite Lorryia formosa are also found on the peach tree.
It is a good pollen source for honey bees and a honeydew source for aphids. Peach trees are prone to a disease called leaf curl , which usually does not directly affect the fruit, but does reduce the crop yield by partially defoliating the tree. Several fungicides can be used to combat the disease, including Bordeaux mixture and other copper-based products the University of California considers these organic treatments , ziram , chlorothalonil , and dodine.
Peaches are climacteric    fruits and continue to ripen after being picked from the tree. Peaches are not only a popular fruit, but are symbolic in many cultural traditions, such as in art, paintings and folk tales such as Peaches of Immortality. Peach blossoms are highly prized in Chinese culture. The ancient Chinese believed the peach to possess more vitality than any other tree because their blossoms appear before leaves sprout. When early rulers of China visited their territories, they were preceded by sorcerers armed with peach rods to protect them from spectral evils.
On New Year's Eve, local magistrates would cut peach wood branches and place them over their doors to protect against evil influences. The Chinese also considered peach wood t'ao-fu protective against evil spirits, who held the peach in awe. In ancient China, peach-wood bows were used to shoot arrows in every direction in an effort to dispel evil.
T.J. Laverne (Author of The Morning Star)
Peach-wood slips or carved pits served as amulets to protect a person's life, safety, and health. Peach-wood seals or figurines guarded gates and doors, and, as one Han account recites, "the buildings in the capital are made tranquil and pure; everywhere a good state of affairs prevails". Another aid in fighting evil spirits were peach-wood wands. The Li-chi Han period reported that the emperor went to the funeral of a minister escorted by a sorcerer carrying a peach-wood wand to keep bad influences away.
Since that time, peach-wood wands have remained an important means of exorcism in China. It was in an orchard of flowering peach trees that Liu Bei , Guan Yu , and Zhang Fei took an oath of brotherhood in the opening chapter of the classic Chinese novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. A peach tree growing on a precipice was where the Taoist master Zhang Daoling tested his disciples.
The Old Man of the South Pole one of the deities of the Chinese folk religion fulu shou is sometimes seen holding a large peach, representing long life and health. The term " bitten peach " , first used by Legalist philosopher Han Fei in his work Han Feizi , became a byword for homosexuality.
The book records the incident when courtier Mizi Xia bit into an especially delicious peach and gave the remainder to his lover, Duke Ling of Wei , as a gift so that he could taste it as well. In Korea, peaches have been cultivated from ancient times. According to Samguk Sagi , peach trees were planted during the Three Kingdoms of Korea period, and Sallim gyeongje also mentions cultivation skills of peach trees.
The peach is seen as the fruit of happiness, riches, honours and longevity.
The rare peach with double seeds is seen as a favorable omen of a mild winter. It is one of the ten immortal plants and animals, so peaches appear in many minhwa folk paintings. Peaches and peach trees are believed to chase away spirits, so peaches are not placed on tables for jesa ancestor veneration , unlike other fruits. This took place on the fifth day of the first lunar month, two days before the predicted end of the battle.
The branch of peach flowers that was sent from the north to the centre of Vietnam was not only a message of victory from the King to his wife, but also the start of a new spring of peace and happiness for all the Vietnamese people. It was by a peach tree that the protagonists of the Tale of Kieu fell in love. And in Vietnam , the blossoming peach flower is the signal of spring. Many famous artists have painted still life with peach fruits placed in prominence. Caravaggio paintings introduce realism by painting peach leaves that are molted, discolored or in some cases have wormholes — conditions common in modern peach cultivation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the tree and its fruit. For other uses, see Peach disambiguation , Peaches disambiguation , and Peachtree disambiguation. Batsch not Stokes nor L. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
April Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of peach and nectarine diseases. Claude Monet , A Jar of Peaches. Archived from the original on 25 September Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Archived from the original on 14 July Retrieved 5 March Archived from the original on 20 September