Further, there are reported cases when patients in a minimally conscious state have recovered, even after a decade or longer. Brain death is generally considered the irreversible cessation of all brain functions, including the cortex and brain stem the upper and lower portions of the brain. Many patients are pronounced legally brain dead while the heart is still beating.
In other cases, the patient is not considered dead until support machines have been turned off and the heart stops beating. A major problem is caused by the inconsistency in the process of determining brain death. Several studies have shown that medical personnel determine brain death in different ways. Even more troubling, some hospitals have no established policy on determining brain death. Further, in some cases there are reportedly different standards among doctors in the same hospital. This article contains a summation of medical conditions related to a variety of potential end of life issues.
This information is not to be considered medical advice. Adaptation and evolution happen through unintentional changes mutations that are advantageous to an entire species.
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Viruses definitely adapt to their surroundings. Unlike the previous requirement, which required an immediate response, adaptation is a process that takes place over time. Sometimes a host does not have enough energy or supplies to support the virus to actively replicate, so it will switch to the lysogenic phase. The virus can eventually reenter the lytic phase when conditions are right.
This ability to adapt is what makes human immunodeficiency virus HIV as hard to treat as it is. HIV mutates quickly because it makes frequent mistakes while replicating its genome. Because the virus is constantly changing, it makes it very hard to design drugs and vaccines against it. One drug might prevent a large number of virions from replicating, but just a few will be unaffected.
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Those surviving virions will continue to infect more cells, making copies of the resistant strains. Where does this leave us? Are viruses alive or dead? So were they ever alive? Most biologists say no. Even though they definitely replicate and adapt to their environment, viruses are more like androids than real living organisms.
Consider the following:
Just like crazy killer robots, viruses are created fully formed, and rely on host materials to build and power themselves. Antibiotics, for example, are used to treat bacterial infections, and are useless at dealing with a viral infection like the flu or chickenpox. Instead of destroying the virus, antiviral medicines try to shut off the replication cycle, like shutting down the android production line. What happens if a virus infects another virus?
Scientists found a bacteria-sized giant virus which they named mamavirus. Because of these rules, some groups can never be captured alive , while others can't avoid capture dead. The group at a is not alive, but may become alive, so is unsettled. The group at b is dead. The group at c and d is alive.
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The black group surrounding c and d can never be captured, and is called alive. The group can live because it has two—separated—inner liberties, where white can't play. A group such as b that cannot become alive is called dead.
Groups that are neither alive , nor dead , are called unsettled. Liberties inside a group are called eyes. In the previous example, a , b , c and d are eyes. An eye may be a single empty intersection, or more of them.
In the diagram on the left, the intersections marked e form a single eye, and f forms another eye. The group has two—separated—eye spaces. Even though white can make a move in these eyes, black could eventually capture the white stones, and each eye would thereby be reduced to a single intersection. An inner liberty where the opponent can still play, by capturing part of the group that encloses this liberty, is called a 'false eye' or 'deficient eye'. In the example on the left, white can play at g , and capture a black stone.
The eye is then destroyed, and black has only one eye left.
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A group with only one eye is not alive. The black group at g is dead, because it can not form two true eyes. As the board fills up during the course of the game, certain groups will survive, and others may not. A group with a single eye can normally be captured, in the end, by filling first round the outside.
The purpose of making two eyes is to prevent this. Novices sometimes interpret making two eyes in a narrow way, and form 'explicit' eyes one by one. This is often the wrong approach, and it is better to play generally to make a territory inside a group out of which two eyes can surely be made , if and when the opponent attacks it. Groups with seven or more points of territory can usually form two eyes when attacked, unless there are structural weaknesses.
Because the loss of a group can mean the loss of the game, and because the efficient use of each move is important, knowing the life and death status of one's own groups as well as one's opponent's is an important skill to cultivate, if one is to become a strong player. The correct, accurate plays with which to make a group secure, or to kill the opponent's group, are studied deeply by all strong players.
The concept of 'status' is discussed in Life and Death by James Davies. Groups of stones are divided into those that are alive , dead or unsettled. Here alive , for example, is an unconditional judgement made, that with best play from both players, the group can survive to the end of the game. That assumes the opponent starts: The unsettled status is therefore most worthy of attention.
By playing first, the attacking player can kill such a group. By playing first, the defending player can save such a group. There is an enormous range of formations that are unsettled. A group can be considered "alive", "dead", or "unsettled" based on whether two eyes can be made regardless of how the opponent plays.