Those who settled on the eastern margins of the China Sea, beyond Melaka, were no exceptions. By this means, by the mid th century the Portuguese had achieved a dominant position in the China Sea trade, thereby justifying a stable presence in the port city of Macao in , strategically located very close to Canton, in the Pearl River Delta.
Contacts were established through the employment of poorly educated Chinese, Japanese and Malayan intermediaries. What spoke most clearly was the universal language of money and the exchange of capital. There is no doubt that the presence of the Society of Jesus promoted a deeper understanding of the Japanese territory, the prerequisite for, but also the consequence of, an increased interest in Japan as a civilization, with the goal of making evangelization possible.
Over the course of about four decades, Cosme de Torres c. Paul, who had evangelized the Greeks and the Romans 27 — thought that if Christianity was to be truly acculturated in Japan — as a religion that would be run by the Japanese and for Japanese — it was necessary to acclimate oneself to Japanese culture. In tracing and promoting the history of the missions, justifying the criteria adopted, answering the criticisms of the Franciscans, the Jesuit texts construct a complex cultural geography of Japanese civilization, making extensive use of Japanese intermediaries and sources. The understanding of the geography of Japan represented a foundational knowledge, relevant, but not confined, to the territorial organization of the missions.
Comparison with the watermarks classified by Briquet indicates a central Italian provenance, in the late 16th or early 17th centuries, likely to be Lucchese, Florentine or Roman paper. In the light of this analysis, it is safe to assume that the map was copied in Pisa or Florence from a lost prototype drawn in Japan in the context of the Jesuit mission, and later brought to Europe on the occasion of the missio legatorum japonensium organized by Alessandro Valignano. It was probably on this occasion that the map held today in the State Archive of Florence was copied from another map, brought by the Jesuits that accompanied the legates.
He also managed to determine the length of the Japanese league ri in terms of the Portuguese and Spanish measurements.
The result was a map of Japan that for the first time integrated all this information into a graduated astronomical frame. While the map has been lost, the written description prepared in Latin by Valignano Iaponicae tabulae explicatio reports in great detail the contents of the map and is still extant. Ad elogia Jappanica New and accurate description of Japan.
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On the secrets of the sea , a multi-volume nautical atlas that was published in Florence in Ad elogia Jappanica , Rome, , engraving on paper, While in Rome, before returning to Asia, he published several works with a focus on the mission of Japan, 44 including the already mentioned book in Latin on the martyrs, under the eloquent and macabre title Fasciculus e Iapponicis floribus, suo adhuc madentibus sanguine… Qui legitis flores, hos legite, sic quoniam positi suaves miscentur odores Bouquet of Japanese flowers still dripping with their blood… Who picks up these flowers, arranged in this order, can smell their mellifluous fragrance.
The book begins with an important, extremely rare, and overlooked map of Japan, written in Latin: The map shows Japan divided into the traditional sixty-six provinces, gives the locations and details the number of churches and colleges that the Society established there. These genres included Western maps of the world in particular, Dutch printed planispheres and Portuguese manuscript ones ; the planispheres written in Chinese and printed in numerous editions in the context of the mission in China by Matteo Ricci, in collaboration with several Chinese scholars and printers c.
Kim Sa-hyeong, Yi Mu, Map of the lands in a single block and of the capitals of the kingdoms of the past dynasties , Ink and colors on silk, x cm, Seoul, c. Pair of six-panel screens, ink, gold and colors on paper; each screen It produced new images that assembled in a new synthesis — whether artistic, cartographic or iconographic — European, Japanese, Korean-Chinese themes. In the first diagram, at the centre of the sub-lunar world, there is a representation of the terracqueous globe, surrounded by four ships, positioned at the four cardinal points.
At the centre of the globe, the Eurasian oikumene can be made out. This set of cartographic, iconographic as well as astronomical images derive for sure from, as yet unidentified, European sources. See Plate 5 and Plate 6.
Ink and colors on paper, 17 th century, Kanshin-ji, Kawachinagano, Osaka. At the same time, through the large astronomical diagrams they pointed out the spherical nature of the earth and its circumnavigability in the context of the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic universe, composed of four elements: The wealth of foreign material culture displayed in the screens, the huge Portuguese ships, the tall figures of the Jesuits and the merchants, their unusual and precious clothes, their black slaves and servants, their animals — Arabian horses, peacocks, elephants, monkeys, lions, European dogs — altogether, through the powerful lens of the indefatigable curiosity of Japanese painters, built a geography and cartography of nanban international trade, as highlighted by Victoria Weston.
Today, the latter could be perhaps taken for granted, but as already mentioned, it was by no means obvious in the 16th and 17th centuries. In this regard, the influence of Western marine charts and navigational techniques transmitted by the Portuguese was decisive, as shown by the Japanese nautical charts with lines and wind-roses, cartographic scales, and terminology that clearly derived from Iberian roteiros and charts. They were re-copying and transforming images of the world available to them that had different shapes and different provenance.
Ink, color, gold and gold leaf on paper, 71x cm, Berkeley, University of California, East Asian Library, call number: The complex radial system of terrestrial and sea routes that departed from and arrived to the port city of Macao, a major fulcrum in early modern Asian and world exchange and communication.
Quoted in Antoni J. For a digital reproduction: For modern Portuguese and English translations: Japanese travellers in sixteenth-century Europe: For the history of the publication of the De missione: Laures, Kirishitan Bunko 3 rd ed. Tokyo, Sophia University, , p. Massarella, Moran , p.
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Facsimile edition Tokyo, Benseisha, For the source quoted in the title: Lyons, Symphorien Berauld, many other editions followed. For the original version in Latin: De missione , p. It is of considerable size; its inhabitants have fair complexions, are well made, and are civilized in their manners. Their religion is the worship of idols. They are independent of every foreign power, and governed only by their own lords. They have gold in the greatest abundance, its sources being inexhaustible, but few merchants visit the country.
The palace of the lord of the island is very large, and is covered with gold just as we cover our churches with lead […] There are many pearls, and they are red and round and big, and are more valuable than the white pearls. There are many precious stones; it is impossible to reckon the riches of this island. Edizione toscana del Trecento.
Cardona, Milano, Adelphi, , p. Livre des Merveilles , Del Gran Khan , Historia Tartarorum , De condicionibus et consuetudinibus orientalium regionum , Milione are amongst the most widely spread. Paul Pelliot, Notes on Marco Polo , 3 vols. Being a Translation of Kitab al-Fawa'id fi usul al-bahr wa'l-qawa'id of Ahmad b. Textus catalogorum Japoniae aliaeque de personis domibusque S. Editados y anotados por Juan Ruiz-de-Medina S. Turnbull, The Kakure Kirishitan of Japan. The Mapping of Japan: This book can be regarded as the definitive study of European printed maps of Japan.
It also includes a very valuable section by Wolfgang Michel about Japanese names on early modern Western maps of Japan p.
For an interesting analysis of Acquaviva and Valignano relationships: Roberto Sani, Unum ovile et unus pastor: A Cartographic Vision , pls. Florence, Archivio di Stato di Firenze, Misc. For a detailed study see A. Uma carta nautica portuguesa, anonima, de "circa" Fontoura da Abel Fontoura , Language Portuguese English French. Check copyright status Cite this Title Uma carta nautica portuguesa, anonima, de "circa" Physical Description 62 p.
Atlantic Coast Europe -- Maps -- To Atlantic Coast Africa -- Maps -- To Notes Portuguese, French, and English. Facsimile reproduction, with volume of descriptive and analytic text, of an anonymous Portuguese nautical chart ca. Also available online http: Set up My libraries How do I set up "My libraries"? This single location in All: This single location in Australian Capital Territory: None of your libraries hold this item.
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