It has been suggested that the East India Company argued for the lowest estimate when paying reparations for Every's raid, with the Company's president naturally wanting the most conservative estimate in order to pay as little for the damages as possible. Although Every's capture of the Gunsway has been cited as piracy's greatest exploit,  it is possible that other pirates have perpetrated even more profitable raids. If the latter number is correct, it would far eclipse Every's haul. Every's exploits immediately captivated the public's imagination, and some considered him a sort of gallant maritime Robin Hood who exemplified the working class idea that rebellion and piracy were acceptable ways to fight back against unfair captains and societies.
Irish pirate Walter Kennedy , who was born the same year the Gunsway was plundered, had learned of Every's story at a young age and committed it to memory.
When he retired from piracy, he returned to London to spend his riches, even opening a brothel in Deptford. While awaiting his execution, Kennedy's favorite pastime was recounting tales of Every's adventures. Another Irishman, Edward England , one-time quartermaster to Charles Vane , spent most of his career in the Indian Ocean raiding Mughal ships in much the same way Every had done two decades earlier.
After parting ways with Vane, England raided slaving ships off the coast of West Africa. In , he captured a ton Dutch East Indiaman of thirty-four guns off the Malabar Coast , and renamed his new flagship to Fancy. Unfortunately for England, he was subsequently marooned on Mauritius by his mutinous crew after refusing to grant them permission to torture their captives.
After fashioning a makeshift raft, he drifted to the very island believed to be ruled of the King of Pirates himself. No pirate utopia awaited him, however, and he died an alcoholic beggar. Ironically, this was the fictional but moralized fate Charles Johnson ascribed to Every in his General History.
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It has been suggested that, like Every before him, Edward England had a "brief, yet spectacular career,"  and he may have come "closest to living out the Avery legend. A number of fictional and semi-biographical accounts of Every were published in the decades following his disappearance. In , the first such account appeared as a sixteen-page pamphlet entitled The Life and Adventures of Capt.
It was written by an anonymous author using the pseudonym Adrian van Broeck, who claimed to be a Dutchman who endured captivity by Every's crew. In the account, Every is depicted as both a treacherous pirate and a romantic lover; after he raids the Mughal's ship, he runs off with—and later marries—the Emperor's daughter. The King of Madagascar soon commands an army of 15, pirates and a fleet of forty warships, and is said to be living in fantastic luxury in an impregnable fortress beyond the reach of his English and Mughal adversaries.
Furthermore, Every mints his own currency: Although wild rumors of Every's fate had been circulating for years, Adrian van Broeck's fictionalized biography provided the popular legend of Every that was to be borrowed by subsequent publications. European governments were soon receiving people who claimed to be Every's ambassadors from Saint Mary's, and as the legend grew even heads of state started to believe the astonishing stories.
At one point, "English and Scottish officials at the highest level gave serious attention to the proposals of these 'pirate diplomats'," while Peter the Great "tried to hire the Saint Mary's pirates to help build a Russian colony on Madagascar. Owing to his notoriety, Every was, along with Blackbeard, one of the few pirates whose life was dramatized on stage. It proved to be at once both controversial and successful, and was performed to regaled audiences at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane , appearing in print in London the following year.
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The play was not without its detractors, however. Dramatist and critic John Dennis wrote a letter to the Master of the Revels criticizing him for licensing the play, which he blasted as "a prostitution of the stage, an encouragement to villainy, and a disgrace to the theater. Both tales acknowledged the widely believed stories of Every's pirate republic. It was Charles Johnson 's influential General History that established the competing account of Every. Johnston, ,  although this is likely a retelling of earlier publications. In addition to the play and books written about Henry Every, a successful ballad was also printed in England during his career.
At least nine different reprints of the ballad, of varying similarity to the original published by Lewis, were printed between and Oxford University Press, Despite this, it is unlikely Every wrote the verses. A more likely scenario is that one of the approximately fifteen or twenty loyal sailors who refused to join the mutiny had shared their knowledge of Every upon returning to England, where it was quickly turned into a ballad. A slightly modified copy was delivered to the Privy Council of England by Sir James Houblon on 10 August , where it was used as evidence during the inquiry on the mutiny.
By announcing Every's supposed intentions of turning pirate even before the mutiny was carried out, the ballad may have served to strengthen the Council's convictions that the mutinous crew harbored piratical intentions from the onset. It is possible, therefore, that the ballad may have actually been written and distributed as a way to convict Every.
During Every's career, the government used the media to portray him as a notorious criminal in an effort to sway public opinion on piracy, but the result has been described as a "near-total failure. There are no reliable contemporary accounts of Every's flag.
According to the ballad "A Copy of Verses," Henry Every's pirate flag was red with four gold chevrons. At some point long after Every's disappearance, another flag was ascribed to him: The original source in which this flag first appears is not known, but it does not appear in publications until the s or early s. If the flag is genuine, it contradicts the generally accepted belief that French pirate Emanuel Wynn was the first to use the skull and crossbones motif, in Furthermore, earrings and bandanas were generally not associated with pirates until the artwork of Howard Pyle in the s, so it is almost certain that this flag is a 20th-century invention.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the New Zealand rugby union player, see Henry Avery rugby union. For other people, see Henry Every disambiguation. Newton Ferrers , England. Uncertain proposed Devon , England. Declaration of Henry Every to English ship commanders . Wherefore as I Commonly Speake wth all Ships I Desire who ever Comes to ye perusal of this to take this Signall that if you or aney whome you may informe are desirous to know wt wee are att a Distance then make your Antient [i.
Two common depictions of Henry Every's Jolly Roger . John Avery , but the memoir is a work of fiction. Daniel Defoe later borrowed this name for his book The King of Pirates , and the usage of "John Avery" continued afterward, most notably by the Dictionary of National Biography. Some have speculated that it referred to Every's height, the pirate having once been described as "a tall, strongly built man.
However, according to governmental records as well as depositions given by captured members of Every's crew, the ship's name was Charles II. Baldridge is known to have kept detailed records of the ships that visited his settlement between and , and the Fancy is not listed as one of those ships. Continued from our last ". Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 2 January The black version appears in Botting p. A Copy of Verses.
The Visitation of the County of Somerset in the Year Retrieved 22 August Doctor Who Classic Episode Guide. Archived from the original on 18 April Retrieved 17 April Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 13 May The Curse of the Black Spot". Doctor Who News Page. Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 16 July A Thief's End - Gameplay Trailer". Johns Hopkins University Press. English Folk Dance and Song Society. Pirates of the British Isles. Biographia Dramatica; or, A Companion to the Playhouse.
Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown [etc. The Greatest Pirate of Them All. Bruce, Peter Henry Memoirs of Peter Henry Bruce, Esq. Payne, and Son, Mewsgate. Retrieved 1 July Journal of British Studies. The University of Chicago Press. The Pirates of the New England Coast — The Pirates Own Book. Emlyn, Sollom , ed. King of the Pirates: The Swashbuckling Life of Henry Every. Fraser, George MacDonald The Pirates' Who's Who.
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Pirates of the Eastern Seas — A Lurid Page of History. Elliot, Henry Miers ; Dowson, John , eds. Jameson, John Franklin Privateering and Piracy in the Colonial Period: Retrieved 19 June Johnson, Charles . The Life and Adventures of Capt. University of California, Los Angeles: The Augustan Reprint Society.
Laughton, John Knox Published August 1st by Hesperus Press first published To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about The King of Pirates , please sign up. Lists with This Book. Mar 05, Calzean rated it it was ok Shelves: It might have been a rollicking good yarn in the late s but it sure is dated. Captain Avery seems to be the luckiest pirate alive who was able to attract a crew of cut throats and murderers all were very agreeable to his plans.
He sailed the seas, captured many ships and returned to England one happy man. Sep 01, Kim rated it it was ok Shelves: Almost no one knows about this book. No one now and no one then as far as I can figure. According to Wikipedia be prepared, this is rather long: The King of Pirates is a fictional adventure by Daniel Defoe.
It is one of the author's more obscure fictional books. And that's it, two sentences, I can find more things to say about it than that, of course I can find more things to say about quite a few things that the average person. And the plot summery in Wikipedia won't give away much, so here it is: Plot summary This section is empty.
You can help by adding to it. November See, you are safe from spoilers on there. I can't help it either, even if I knew how to do such a thing, plot summaries seem like they should be more formal than I could ever write. Here we go with my plot summary: The King of Pirates is the story of Captain Avery, the captain of a pirate ship. That seemed pointless to say but I'll leave it there.
Although it is a short book, only about pages, the book is written in the form of two letters. Two very long letters, I certainly never wrote two letters that altogether equaled pages. Not only can I hardly imagine writing a letter of 50 or more pages, I also can't imagine reading the thing either.
In these letters our Captain Avery is defending himself against scandalous accusations. Being a pirate I would think there would be a lot of accusations about you out there, so I'm not sure what he is all worked up about. Google books says this: In two long letters, Captain Avery tries to exonerate himself from the evil deeds he is accused of. It's good to know he doesn't really enjoy killing, that should count for something, I guess it should.
The book is based on the real pirate Henry Every. I never heard of the guy before, I guess he didn't remain notorious after awhile. As I said before the book is in the form of two letters, the pirate writes these letters to defend himself against false accusations. The preface tells us that there have been former ridiculous and extravagant accounts of his life which have been published already. It goes on to say that he is denying the claims that have been published of his participating in rape and murder, but that on the contrary "the Lady was used with all the Decency and Humanity" than any woman found among pirates has even been treated before, that sounds about as comforting as not enjoying killing people did.
The captain is going to explain these stories and more here in the form of these very long letters and the public are to be the only judges. So begins the first letter. Our captain in his words taking "no Notice of my Birth, Infancy, Youth, or any of that Part" starts with the beginning of his becoming a pirate. Now we get a full report of life as a pirate, the sailing, the ships, the gold, the jewels, the buried treasure kind of thing; his perilous journeys on the sea. He begins to get on my nerves pretty early because of his high opinion of himself.
Almost from the beginning he works on and off ships as a foremast-man and a log wood cutter but he finds that he is not formed by nature for these laboring jobs so he must free himself of the "fatigue of that laborious Life" , because it was "as visible to others as to himself" he was meant for greater things. He should become master of a good ship.
After this it seems that whether things on the seas go bad for them or good, all the men anywhere and everywhere look up to and respect Avery, even before he is a captain, and he sure likes to point this out. He wore a white cravat around his neck, dark blue pants, and what appeared to be black sea boots. Before he turned himself in, he also wore a pirate hat with his Jolly Roger on it over a yellow spotted bandana. Later on, during a flashback to Roger's first meeting with Rayleigh, it was revealed that Roger wore the straw hat that Monkey D.
Luffy is currently wearing. Roger was said to be fearless, and those who witnessed his execution even claim that he smiled just before his death,  and during all of his flashback appearances, Roger was seen with a confident smile. His personality is often noted by people who knew him to have been similar to that of Monkey D.
Ace revealed his lineage to Whitebeard , who noted that Ace's personality was not much like his father's. Garp stated that Roger would not run away from an enemy in order to protect his crew from danger. Roger was also a man who loved big, flashy things and reveled in his title of Pirate King despite his oncoming death. Roger was very quick to anger, and he would retaliate for something as simple as an insult to his crew, regardless of how small it might be.
Garp stated that an angry Roger could be a violent, selfish, and short-tempered man, but his actions had been pure and straight, just like a child's, and that he was lucky to survive and become the Pirate King despite his extremely reckless nature. He apparently had a strong bond with his crew. Silvers Rayleigh , his partner, described him as a "magnificent man". It is unknown if any of his crew knew that Roger had a son, Portgas D.
Ace , prior to Sengoku making it public.
According to Monkey D. Garp , even though the whole world hated him, his crewmates trusted Roger completely. He had also destroyed the military force of one country for insulting his crew. Kin'emon stated that Roger had great admiration for Kozuki Oden and recruited him as a crewmate for his final voyage. Most characters who speak of their personal encounter with Roger only make good comments about him, as he seemed to have made many friends in his journey.
He befriended Gan Fall , the God of Skypiea , and left him with wonderful memories. He also befriended Tom and Kokoro , gaining enough admiration and respect for Tom to build him a ship, the Oro Jackson. As a Marine, Garp attempted to kill Roger several times, but both men respected one another to the point that Roger trusted him as he would trust any member of his own crew.
Prior to his execution, Roger imparted the name and location of his lover to Garp in order to protect their child, Portgas D. Ace , from being branded a criminal just by being born as the son of the Pirate King. Before his death, Roger even offered to tell Whitebeard the location of Raftel and explained the significance of the initial D at their last meeting. In the past, Shiki the Golden Lion got in a fight with Roger. After failing to stop Roger from this, Big Mom vowed not to let anyone who read her Road Poneglyph get away again. In Ace's past, there were thugs who hated Roger and spoke ill of him.
Rouge was Roger's lover. Ace", proving that she wanted him to live up to his father's name. Ace was the son of Roger. As Roger did not want Ace to be born as a criminal due to family ties, he requested Garp to take care of Ace in secrecy.
When Roger spoke to Garp, he said that his unborn child held no sins. Despite his hatred for his father, Ace seemed to have respect for him, as he severely beat anyone who badmouthed Roger. However, this may have also been due to the fact that said offenders often would begin slandering "the son of Gol D. Roger", thereby unknowingly referring to Ace himself. Roger was hailed as the most powerful pirate of all time.
His fighting power was nearly unstoppable. Only two people are known to have ever matched Roger in battle: Vice Admiral Monkey D. Garp , who possesses immense strength even in old age and cornered him multiple times before his surrender,  and his rival Edward "Whitebeard" Newgate ,  who held the power of the Gura Gura no Mi and was called the "Strongest Man in the World" after Roger's death.
Examples of his strength include fighting on equal ground with Shiki , who commanded the largest pirate fleet of the time,  and single-handedly defeating the armies of several countries. He also had immense endurance and vitality even when he was ravaged by an incurable disease.
With Crocus's medical skills, he managed to conquer the Grand Line. Roger was also able to understand the meaning of the characters written on the Poneglyphs , as well as write in the same language. According to Rayleigh, Roger could interpret the Poneglyphs because he had the ability to "hear the voice of all things ". He was also one of two known humans in the series who possessed the ability to hear Sea Kings speaking, the other being Luffy.
While fighting Shiki and his massive fleet, it has been shown that Gol D. Roger wielded a sword in one hand and a gun in the other. Born in Loguetown , Roger engaged in piracy and built up his fame over several decades. Brook referred to hearing of a "rookie" with that name around about the time of the Rumbar Pirates ill-fated trip into the Grand Line, some 20 or so years before Roger would enter the Grand Line himself with his crew.
Before he formed his crew, he met Silvers Rayleigh , a young man who was living on a ship he had stolen after his house had burnt down.